Claviformes, unos extraños signos

Claviformes, unos extraños signos

LOS ENIGMÁTICOS SIGNOS CLAVIFORMES DE LAS CUEVAS PALEOLÍTICAS

Si existe un signo dentro del conjunto de arte rupestre paleolítico que me llama desde siempre poderosamente la atención, este no es otro que el de los claviformes.

Lo podemos encontrar en cuevas tan importantes como Altamira, la Pasiega, Cullalvera, Calero II o Las Aguas en Cantabria, Tito Bustillo o el Pindal en Asturias o La cueva de la Pileta en Málaga.

Su forma clásica es la de una especie de triángulo comúnmente representado en rojo y no siempre los encontramos en la misma posición o tamaño.

La definición de claviforme es que tiene forma de clavo o porra según el diccionario de la Real Academia Española. Cabe destacar en este concepto de claviforme en el Arte Rupestre a E. Carthailac por ser de los primeros en interpretar este signo, presente en la Cueva de Altamira, en relación a armas arrojadizas de los actuales pueblos primitivos, como el Boomerang en Australia.

Más adelante, serán Breuil y Obermaier quienes utilizarán la misma idea para interpretar el mismo signo.

Como observamos en la siguiente imagen, podría tener algún parecido.

claviformes

Años más tarde, L. Gourhan interpretaría estos mismos símbolos como caracteres sexuales femeninos, especialmente con las nalgas. Idea que repetirá Jordá por su paralelismo con las Venus.

Fuente imagen: arqueobaske.wordpress.com

Recientemente, en 2014,  B. Madariaga, con motivo de las conferencias realizadas en Puente Viesgo sobre Arte Rupestre, rescataba una publicación sobre las interpretaciones de los signos rupestres paleolíticos en Cantabria. Atendiendo a la explicación que ofrece sobre los claviformes, quedé francamente sorprendida, sobre todo al leer su interpretación sobre el claviforme de la Cueva de Altamira. Este hombre veía en parte lo que yo también veía tras aventurarme representar con pastel sobre papel, este signo.

Dibujo de Lorena B.C.

En ellas tanto yo como algunos autores como bien digo, observamos claviformes o triángulos junto a figuras humanas, algo que descubrí cuando pinté estos signos, sin haber leído previamente las interpretaciones que se daban al respecto.

ARTÍCULO RELACIONADO:  Neandertales y arte rupestre

Posteriormente estos autores, que no yo, ven signos masculinos y femeninos en estas representaciones como vinculados a esas interpretaciones de los años 60 relacionadas con el sexo y la fecundidad, tan importante en la prehistoria, donde parece que la mortalidad infantil era muy alta y la supervivencia de la especie era muy importante, según las teorías.

En mi caso, me reservaré para otro artículo, lo que yo vi al dibujar estos claviformes de la cueva de Altamira. Lo que a mí o a mi cerebro le sugieren.

En la actualidad las interpretaciones no han variado mucho, y estos caracteres especiales, reciben una nueva interpretación, sobre todo los de la Cueva de la Pasiega, donde se les relaciona, con una forma de lenguaje primitivo, en los que los claviformes, tendrían un significado que se repite, que podría ser conocido y compartido por muchos, y en los que tanto su posición, número o tamaño, serían relevantes para llegar a  comprender su significado.

A estas conclusiones ha llegado la reciente investigación de Genevieve Von Petzinger, paleoantropóloga e investigadora de Arte Rupestre canadiense, que ha estudiado con especial interés los signos geométricos que aparecen en multitud de cuevas europeas, y que muchos de ellos, como los claviformes, se repiten una y otra vez en diferentes cuevas de España y Francia.

Pero remontándonos más atrás en el tiempo, y recabando información a cerca de otra teoría que sigue presente en la mente de muchas personas, no puedo dejar de comentar la relación entre los supuestos “extraterrestres” “los ovnis” y estos extraños símbolos presentes en tantas cuevas prehistóricas.

OVNIS EN LA PREHISTORIA

Y recabando información precisamente a cerca de estas teorías, fue como me topé con un artículo interesantísimo escrito precisamente por uno de mis profesores de la facultad, hace ya 40 años, que no es poco…

Resulta gracioso y paradigmático al mismo tiempo, retrotraerse a los años 70, para rescatar este tipo de informaciones sobre el tema que nos ocupa.

El artículo en cuestión, aparecía en una revista dedicada a los Ovnis llamada Stendek  y versaba sobre los extraterrestres en las pinturas prehistóricas.

ARTÍCULO RELACIONADO:  ¿Conoces la cueva de Chufín?

Sabía que la teoría extraterrestre sobre todo en los signos geométricos del arte rupestre, estuvo al menos, durante algunos años, en boca de muchos. Y gracias al artículo consultado pude llegar no solo a la fuente de dichas teorías, sino que además pude disfrutar de los razonamientos de mi profesor, que por aquellos años, debía de ser estudiante de arqueología.

Pero sin detenerme en más detalles, vamos al grano, o en este caso, a los extraterrestres en la prehistoria.

ORÍGENES DE LAS TEORÍAS OVNIS EN EL ARTE RUPESTRE

Si hay un autor a quien debemos esta teoría es sin duda Aime Michel, ufólogo francés que escribió muchos artículos y libros sobre Ovnis entre los años 50 y 70 y cuya teoría de las alineaciones “Orthoteny” y la línea Bavic le harían famoso, al menos hasta que dicha teoría sería refutada en 1976.

Esta teoría le sirvió para buscar pruebas de evidencia extraterrestre en la prehistoria y concretamente en el Arte Rupestre Europeo,  A. Michel estudió las cuevas desde el punto de vista ufológico, y sirvió de precedente para que otros investigadores del fenómeno Ovni siguieran sus pasos, como el mismo Antonio Ribera.

Algunos de los argumentos más repetidos son precisamente los relacionados con “los claviformes” o tectiformes.  En las investigaciones ufológicas siempre se han querido ver platillos volantes y naves nodrizas comparándolos con estas formas tan características.

Sinceramente y si observamos a continuación las siguientes imágenes del imaginario colectivo y la forma de los ovnis que tenemos en nuestra conciencia colectiva, razones no les faltan para llegar a  pensar en que unas y otras figuras se parecen mucho.

claviformes

Pero desde luego, las interpretaciones del Arte Rupestre a día de hoy siguen siendo un enigma por resolver, aunque aventurarse a descartar la posibilidad de que simplemente se traten de métodos de caza, como vendría siendo lo habitual y lo normal en la prehistoria y que nuestros ancestros lo representaran de esta forma, sería lo más lógico.

ARTÍCULO RELACIONADO:  FELIZ DÍA INTERNACIONAL DEL ARTE RUPESTRE PALEOLÍTICO DEL CANTÁBRICO

Estamos hablando por supuesto de hace cuarenta años. Hoy la interpretación de un posible conjunto de signos de comunicación, de la mano de Genevieve, se abre paso tras aquellas primeras interpretaciones.

De una u otra forma el tema extraterrestre es llamativo, enigmático, curioso y una posibilidad más, dentro del fascinante mundo de la prehistoria, pero de momento, necesitamos alguna evidencia material, más allá del arte rupestre, para poder afirmar que efectivamente, “ellos”, los extraterrestres estuvieron aquí, conviviendo con nuestros ancestros y que por ello, fueron representados. Estamos cansados de escuchar que pintaban lo que veían, y por tanto, ¿Quién puede afirmar que efectivamente, no vieron algo en los cielos y así quedó representado?

A muchos nos encantaría que fuese así, que pinturas como el Gran Dios Marciano (bautizado por Henry Lothe) o los ovnis “claviformes” fuesen realmente la prueba de su existencia de estas civilizaciones extraterrestres.

Fuente imagen: arqueohistoria.com

Los ovnis en la prehistoria, son y serán un mito muy arraigado, que aunque en la actualidad está en desuso y pasado de moda, ridiculizado y tachado de locura, puede que vuelva a resurgir con fuerza en el futuro.

De momento nos quedaremos con la reflexión de Ribera, citada en la revista Stendek donde concluye:

“Lo cierto, es que en nuestra opinión, el problema se ha desorbitado, llegándose a atribuir a influencia extraterrestre casi todo cuanto constituye el acervo cultural de la humanidad”.

Pero, por otra parte, no nos cerraremos a la posibilidad, de que nuestros códigos ancestrales insertos en nuestros cerebros, no estén equivocados y realmente vean lo que es, aunque nos cueste aceptarlo, como dejan imaginar algunas de las más famosas pinturas rupestres del Tassili N´Ajjer en el desierto de Argelia.

© Viajes a la Prehistoria

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